What is Palm Kernel Shell?
Palm kernel shell is the shell of palm fruit (Arecaceae), being separated from palm fruit throng palm oil process. It is known as a common kind of biomass waste or residue from palm oil industry. It is also named as PKS or oil palm EFB. Before biomass pellets enter the world market, palm kernel shells are generally be used to make black color palm kernel compost by burying underneath the land for a very long time. With the develop of biomass fuel and pelleting technology, palm kernel shell is becoming hot in pellet making industry in recent years due to its high calorific and cheap recycle price, especially in European countries and Southeast Asia. In Malaysia, because of rich palm resources, palm kernel shell is their first choice of biomass pelleting.
Palm Kernel Shells
Rich Oil Palm Resources in AsiaIn 2005, 7,599, 000 ha oil palm was harvested in Asia totally and with 146,093,000 tonnes of fresh fruit bunches and 10224000 tonnes of PKSS produced.
|Oil palm||Fresh fruit bunches||Empty fruit bunches (PKS)|
|*1.000 ha||% in Asia||*1.000 tonnes||% in Asia||*1.000 tonnes|
|Asia Total||7599(60.3% of world total)||100.0||146063( 84.2% of world total)||100.0||10224( 84.2% of world total)|
Main Composition of Palm Kernel Shell
Below is a simple diagram of palm kernel shell specification.
|Size||Ash content||Inherent Moisture||Heat Energy/ Calorific Value|
|4-20mm||< 15%||< 20 %||> 4.000 kcal/Kg|
Palm Fiber Pellets & Briquettes
Palm fiber pellets or briquettes are compressed palm fiber. They are made by pellet mill and briquette machine.
|Palm Pellets||Palm Briquettes|
Why Make Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) Pellets?
Some people may wonder that why not burn the shells or palm fiber directly in the boilers? Below is the reason of making palm kernel shell pellets.
- Low moisture to improve burning effectiveness.
- PKS Pellets and briquettes have high energy content than row PKS Materials.
- The calorific of pelletized palm kernel shell is about 4200~4900 cal/kg.
- The production of PKS Pellets can ease environment pressure and ease energy pressure by replacing coal fuel.
- Pelletizing or briquetting makes it clean to use and convenient to store and transport.
- Suitable for pellet stove, industrial biomass boiler, biomass power plant, centralize steam boiler house hold BBQ rack, and so on.
Main Specification of PKS Pellet
Moisture < 12%
Ash Content = 5%
Volatile Material = 75%
Fixed Carbon Content = 13%
Heat Energy = 4000 kcal/kg
Introduction of PSK Pelletizing ProductionA complete pellet production generally includes shredding, drying, grinding, pelletizing, cooling, sieving, dust recycling and packing.
ABC Machinery can offer tailor-made palm kernel shell and EFB pelletizing plant of different output. Base on years of experience on biomass pelletizing, we give some suggestions to whom plan to start a complete pellet line.
- It is necessary to have an overall understanding of palm kernel shell and pellet production line.
- Prepare sufficient raw materials for continuous production.
- Ensure that the PSK pellet production procedures meet the requirement of target markets.
- Raw materials should be sufficient and should ensure the continuity of pellet production.
- Quality of the raw materials should guaranteed. Raw materials with moisture content of 15%, is ideal while when it goes upper than 15%, the raw materials should be dried.
- Location of the EFB pellet plant should be convenient for raw materials transportation.
- A feasible survey is necessary to be conducted beforehand.
- Electric cabinet
- Shredder (to crush the palm kernel shell into proper size for drying)
- Dryer (to get the moisture content ready for pelletizing)
- Hammer mill (to grinding the materials to powder for pelletizing)
- Ring die type EFB pellet mill (turn the power palm materials into pellets)
- Cooler (to cooler down the newly extruded hot pellets and hard the pellets)
- Packaging machine
This is one of our projects of PKS pellet production line. It is built in Serbia. Below is the basic information of this pelletizing project.
Raw Materials: Palm Kernel Shell
Main Equipment: Conveyor, dryer, cooler and ring die pellet mill
Finished Pellet Specification
Length: < 30mm,
Diameter: 6, 8 & 10mm,
Heat Energy:4000 kcal/kg,
Ash Content: 5,
Moisture < 12%,
Volatile Material: 75%
Palm Kernel Shell or PKS is ideal materials for making fuel pellets, but it is also relatively more difficult to be pelletizer than wood materials such as sawdust or wood chips. Therefore, you need a professional pellet plant manufacture. Because of rigid gear transmission system and structural design, the industrial ring die type pelletizer of ABC Machinery has outstanding performance in making palm kernel shell pellets.